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Sardines

Sardines, Atlantic, canned
3.20 oz
(90.72 grams)
Calories: 189
GI: very low

NutrientDRI/DV





 protein45%


 calcium35%


 iodine24%

 copper19%

 choline16%



This chart graphically details the %DV that a serving of Sardines provides for each of the nutrients of which it is a good, very good, or excellent source according to our Food Rating System. Additional information about the amount of these nutrients provided by Sardines can be found in the Food Rating System Chart. A link that takes you to the In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Sardines, featuring information over 80 nutrients, can be found under the Food Rating System Chart.

Health Benefits

Promote Heart Health

Sardines are rich in numerous nutrients that have been found to support cardiovascular health. They are one of the most concentrated sources of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, which have been found to lower triglycerides and cholesterol levels; one serving (3.25 ounce can) of sardines actually contains over 50% of the daily value for these important nutrients. Sardines are an excellent source of vitamin B12, ranking as one of the World's Healthiest Food most concentrated in this nutrient. Vitamin B12 promotes cardiovascular well-being since it is intricately tied to keeping levels of homocysteine in balance; homocysteine can damage artery walls, with elevated levels being a risk factor for atherosclerosis.

Promote Bone Health

Sardines are not only a rich source of bone-building vitamin D, a nutrient not so readily available in the diet and one that is most often associated with fortified dairy products. Vitamin D plays an essential role in bone health since it helps to increase the absorption of calcium. Sardines are also a very good source of phosphorus, a mineral that is important to strengthening the bone matrix. Additionally, as high levels of homocysteine are related to osteoporosis, sardines' vitamin B12 rounds out their repertoire of nutrients that support bone health.

Promote Optimal Health

For many years, researchers have known that vitamin D, in the form of calcitriol, participates in the regulation of cell activity. Because cell cycles play such a key role in the development of cancer, optimal vitamin D intake may turn out to play an important role in the prevention of various types of cancer.

Packed with Protein

Sardines are rich in protein, which provides us with amino acids. Our bodies use amino acids to create new proteins, which serve as the basis for most of the body's cells and structures. Proteins form the basis of muscles and connective tissues, antibodies that keep our immune system strong, and transport proteins that deliver oxygen and nutrients throughout our bodies.

Description

Sardines are named after Sardinia, the Italian island where large schools of these fish were once found. While sardines are delightful enjoyed fresh, they are most commonly found canned, since they are so perishable. With growing concern over the health of the seas, people are turning to sardines since they are at the bottom of the aquatic food chain, feeding solely on plankton, and therefore do not concentrate heavy metals, such as mercury, and contaminants as do some other fish.

While there are six different types of species of sardines belong to the Clupeidae family, more than 20 varieties of fish are sold as sardines throughout the world. What these fish share in common is that they are small, saltwater, oily-rich, silvery fish that are soft-boned. In the United States, sardines actually refers to a small herring, and adult sardines are known as pilchards, a name that is commonly used in other parts of the world. Sardines are abundant in the seas of the Atlantic, Pacific and Mediterranean with Spain, Portugal, France, and Norway being the leading producers of canned sardines.

History

Sardines date back to time immemorial, but it was the emperor Napoleon Bonaparte who helped to popularize these little fish by initiating the canning of sardines, the first fish ever to be canned, in order to feed the citizens of the land over which he presided. Extremely popular in the United States in the 20th century, sardines are now making a comeback as people realize that they are an incredibly rich source of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D and that, because they are small fish at the bottom of the food chain, they are not as likely to contain concentrated amounts of contaminants such as mercury and PCBs.

How to Select and Store

Canned sardines packed in olive oil are preferable to those in soybean oil. Those concerned about their intake of fat may want to choose sardines packed in water. Look at the expiration date on the package to ensure that they are still fresh.

If you are purchasing fresh sardines, look for ones that smell fresh, are firm to the touch, and have bright eyes and shiny skin.

Pacific sardines are featured on the Super Green List of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch. The Super Green List is considered "the Best of the Best" in seafood; to receive this designation a fish or shellfish needed to be among their "Best Choices" for sustainability, provide at least 250 mg of omega-3s in an 8-ounce serving, and contain low levels of mercury (less than 216 ppb) and PCBs (less than 11 ppb).

Canned sardines can be stored in the kitchen cupboard, ideally one that is cool and not exposed to excessive heat. They have a long storage life; check the package for the expiration date so you know when you should use it by. Turn the can every now and then to ensure that all parts of the sardines are exposed to the oil or liquid in which they are packed; this will help keep them well-moistened. Unused portions of opened sardine cans should be refrigerated.

Fresh sardines are very perishable and normal refrigerator temperatures of 36-40F (2-4C) do not inhibit the enzymatic activity that causes them to spoil; they are best when stored at 28-32F (-2-0C). To store the fresh sardines, remove them from the store packaging, rinse them and place them in a plastic storage bag as soon as you bring them home from the market. Place in a large bowl and cover with ice cubes or ice packs to reduce the temperature of the fish. Remember to drain off the melted water and replenish the ice as necessary. Although fresh sardines will keep for a few days using this method, we recommend using the sardines as soon as possible, within a day or two. Don't forget that fish not only starts to smell but will dry out or become slimy if not stored correctly.

Tips for Preparing and Cooking

Tips for Preparing Sardines

Canned sardines require minimal preparation. For canned sardines packed in oil, gently rinse them under water to remove excess oil before serving. Fresh sardines need to be gutted and rinsed under cold running water.

How to Enjoy

A Few Quick Serving Ideas

  • Sprinkle sardines with lemon juice and extra virgin olive oil.
  • Combine sardines with chopped onion, olives, or fennel.
  • Top sardines with chopped tomatoes and basil, oregano, or rosemary.
  • Balsamic vinegar gives sardines a nice zing.
  • Make a sauce with extra virgin olive oil, lemon juice, pressed garlic, Dijon mustard, and salt and pepper. Serve over sardines.

Individual Concerns

Sardines and Food Allergies

Fish, such as sardines, are among the eight food types considered to be major food allergens in the U.S., requiring identification on food labels. For helpful information about this topic, please see our article, An Overview of Adverse Food Reactions.

Nutritional Profile

Sardines are an excellent source of vitamin B12 and selenium. They are a very good source of phosphorus, omega-3 fatty acids, protein and vitamin D. Additionally, they are a good source of calcium, niacin, copper, vitamin B2 and choline.

Introduction to Food Rating System Chart

In order to better help you identify foods that feature a high concentration of nutrients for the calories they contain, we created a Food Rating System. This system allows us to highlight the foods that are especially rich in particular nutrients. The following chart shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent, very good, or good source (below the chart you will find a table that explains these qualifications). If a nutrient is not listed in the chart, it does not necessarily mean that the food doesn't contain it. It simply means that the nutrient is not provided in a sufficient amount or concentration to meet our rating criteria. (To view this food's in-depth nutritional profile that includes values for dozens of nutrients - not just the ones rated as excellent, very good, or good - please use the link below the chart.) To read this chart accurately, you'll need to glance up in the top left corner where you will find the name of the food and the serving size we used to calculate the food's nutrient composition. This serving size will tell you how much of the food you need to eat to obtain the amount of nutrients found in the chart. Now, returning to the chart itself, you can look next to the nutrient name in order to find the nutrient amount it offers, the percent Daily Value (DV%) that this amount represents, the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating we established in our rating system. For most of our nutrient ratings, we adopted the government standards for food labeling that are found in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's "Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling." Read more background information and details of our rating system.

Sardines, Atlantic, canned
3.20 oz
90.72 grams
Calories: 189
GI: very low
NutrientAmountDRI/DV
(%)
Nutrient
Density
World's Healthiest
Foods Rating
vitamin B128.11 mcg33832.2excellent
selenium47.81 mcg878.3excellent
phosphorus444.52 mg646.1very good
omega-3 fats1.46 g615.8very good
protein22.33 g454.3very good
vitamin D175.09 IU444.2very good
calcium346.54 mg353.3good
vitamin B34.76 mg302.8good
iodine36.00 mcg242.3good
copper0.17 mg191.8good
vitamin B20.21 mg161.5good
choline68.04 mg161.5good
World's Healthiest
Foods Rating
Rule
excellent DRI/DV>=75% OR
Density>=7.6 AND DRI/DV>=10%
very good DRI/DV>=50% OR
Density>=3.4 AND DRI/DV>=5%
good DRI/DV>=25% OR
Density>=1.5 AND DRI/DV>=2.5%

In-Depth Nutritional Profile

In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, here is an in-depth nutritional profile for Sardines. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients, including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids and more.

Sardines, Atlantic, canned
(Note: "--" indicates data unavailable)
3.20 oz
(90.72 g)
GI: very low
BASIC MACRONUTRIENTS AND CALORIES
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Protein22.33 g45
Carbohydrates0.00 g0
Fat - total10.39 g--
Dietary Fiber0.00 g0
Calories188.6910
MACRONUTRIENT AND CALORIE DETAIL
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Carbohydrate:
Starch0.00 g
Total Sugars0.00 g
Monosaccharides0.00 g
Fructose0.00 g
Glucose0.00 g
Galactose0.00 g
Disaccharides0.00 g
Lactose0.00 g
Maltose0.00 g
Sucrose0.00 g
Soluble Fiber0.00 g
Insoluble Fiber0.00 g
Other Carbohydrates0.00 g
Fat:
Monounsaturated Fat3.51 g
Polyunsaturated Fat4.67 g
Saturated Fat1.39 g
Trans Fat-- g
Calories from Fat93.49
Calories from Saturated Fat12.48
Calories from Trans Fat--
Cholesterol128.82 mg
Water54.08 g
MICRONUTRIENTS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Vitamins
Water-Soluble Vitamins
B-Complex Vitamins
Vitamin B10.07 mg6
Vitamin B20.21 mg16
Vitamin B34.76 mg30
Vitamin B3 (Niacin Equivalents)8.93 mg
Vitamin B60.15 mg9
Vitamin B128.11 mcg338
Biotin-- mcg--
Choline68.04 mg16
Folate9.07 mcg2
Folate (DFE)9.07 mcg
Folate (food)9.07 mcg
Pantothenic Acid0.58 mg12
Vitamin C0.00 mg0
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A (Retinoids and Carotenoids)
Vitamin A International Units (IU)97.98 IU
Vitamin A mcg Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE)29.03 mcg (RAE)3
Vitamin A mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)0.00 mcg (RE)
Retinol mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)29.03 mcg (RE)
Carotenoid mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)29.03 mcg (RE)
Alpha-Carotene0.00 mcg
Beta-Carotene0.00 mcg
Beta-Carotene Equivalents0.00 mcg
Cryptoxanthin0.00 mcg
Lutein and Zeaxanthin0.00 mcg
Lycopene0.00 mcg
Vitamin D
Vitamin D International Units (IU)175.09 IU44
Vitamin D mcg4.35 mcg
Vitamin E
Vitamin E mg Alpha-Tocopherol Equivalents (ATE)1.85 mg (ATE)12
Vitamin E International Units (IU)2.76 IU
Vitamin E mg1.85 mg
Vitamin K2.36 mcg3
Minerals
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Boron-- mcg
Calcium346.54 mg35
Chloride-- mg
Chromium-- mcg--
Copper0.17 mg19
Fluoride-- mg--
Iodine36.00 mcg24
Iron2.65 mg15
Magnesium35.38 mg9
Manganese0.10 mg5
Molybdenum3.08 mcg7
Phosphorus444.52 mg64
Potassium360.15 mg10
Selenium47.81 mcg87
Sodium458.13 mg31
Zinc1.19 mg11
INDIVIDUAL FATTY ACIDS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Omega-3 Fatty Acids1.46 g61
Omega-6 Fatty Acids3.21 g
Monounsaturated Fats
14:1 Myristoleic0.00 g
15:1 Pentadecenoic0.00 g
16:1 Palmitol0.20 g
17:1 Heptadecenoic0.00 g
18:1 Oleic1.95 g
20:1 Eicosenoic0.38 g
22:1 Erucic0.98 g
24:1 Nervonic0.00 g
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
18:2 Linoleic3.21 g
18:2 Conjugated Linoleic (CLA)-- g
18:3 Linolenic0.45 g
18:4 Stearidonic0.11 g
20:3 Eicosatrienoic0.00 g
20:4 Arachidonic0.00 g
20:5 Eicosapentaenoic (EPA)0.43 g
22:5 Docosapentaenoic (DPA)0.00 g
22:6 Docosahexaenoic (DHA)0.46 g
Saturated Fatty Acids
4:0 Butyric0.00 g
6:0 Caproic0.00 g
8:0 Caprylic0.00 g
10:0 Capric0.00 g
12:0 Lauric0.00 g
14:0 Myristic0.17 g
15:0 Pentadecanoic0.00 g
16:0 Palmitic0.90 g
17:0 Margaric0.00 g
18:0 Stearic0.31 g
20:0 Arachidic0.00 g
22:0 Behenate0.00 g
24:0 Lignoceric0.00 g
INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Alanine1.35 g
Arginine1.34 g
Aspartic Acid2.29 g
Cysteine0.24 g
Glutamic Acid3.33 g
Glycine1.07 g
Histidine0.66 g
Isoleucine1.03 g
Leucine1.82 g
Lysine2.05 g
Methionine0.66 g
Phenylalanine0.87 g
Proline0.79 g
Serine0.91 g
Threonine0.98 g
Tryptophan0.25 g
Tyrosine0.75 g
Valine1.15 g
OTHER COMPONENTS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Ash3.07 g
Organic Acids (Total)0.00 g
Acetic Acid0.00 g
Citric Acid0.00 g
Lactic Acid0.00 g
Malic Acid0.00 g
Taurine-- g
Sugar Alcohols (Total)0.00 g
Glycerol0.00 g
Inositol0.00 g
Mannitol0.00 g
Sorbitol0.00 g
Xylitol0.00 g
Artificial Sweeteners (Total)-- mg
Aspartame-- mg
Saccharin-- mg
Alcohol0.00 g
Caffeine0.00 mg

Note:

The nutrient profiles provided in this website are derived from The Food Processor, Version 10.12.0, ESHA Research, Salem, Oregon, USA. Among the 50,000+ food items in the master database and 163 nutritional components per item, specific nutrient values were frequently missing from any particular food item. We chose the designation "--" to represent those nutrients for which no value was included in this version of the database.

References

  • Ensminger AH, Esminger M. K. J. e. al. Food for Health: A Nutrition Encyclopedia. Clovis, California: Pegus Press; 1986. 1986. PMID:15210.
  • Wood, Rebecca. The Whole Foods Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Prentice-Hall Press; 1988. 1988. PMID:15220.

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