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References
Each and every month at WHFoods, we rely on hundreds of research studies to keep you up-to-date on scientific information about food, nutrition, and health. (For more information about the role of science in our website content, please see Our Approach to Science Research). Among the featured sections of our website are 100 food profiles and 31 nutrient profiles. In terms of scientific review, we make these profiles one of our website priorities. In each of these profiles, you will find a dedicated References section that contains an alphabetized list of key scientific references involving that particular food or nutrient. In order to make all of these key food and nutrient research references available to you in a single place, we created this WHFoods Reference Library. You can use the radio buttons below to start with either Foods or Nutrients. Then simply choose the specific food or nutrient of interest, and click on it to obtain an alphabetized list of key research references.

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Flaxseeds references

  • Aberg UW, Saarinen N, Abrahamsson A et al. Tamoxifen and flaxseed alter angiogenesis regulators in normal human breast tissue in vivo. PLoS One. 2011; 6(9):e25720. Epub 2011 Sep 30. 2011.
  • Aliani M, Ryland D, and Pierce GN. Effect of flax addition on the flavor profile of muffins and snack bars. Food Research International, Volume 44, Issue 8, October 2011, Pages 2489-2496. 2011.
  • Caroprese M, Marzano A, Marino R et al. Flaxseed supplementation improves fatty acid profile of cow milk. Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 93, Issue 6, June 2010, Pages 2580-2588. 2010.
  • Chahal N, McCrindle B, Manlhiot C et al. aA 4-week randomized clinical trial of flaxseed supplementation in children with hypercholesterolemia. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, Volume 27, Issue 5, Supplement, September—October 2011, Page S339. 2011.
  • Dodin S, Cunnane SC, Masse B et al. Flaxseed on cardiovascular disease markers in healthy menopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Nutrition, Volume 24, Issue 1, January 2008, Pages 23-30. 2008.
  • Faintuch J, Bortolotto LA, Marques PC et al. Systemic inflammation and carotid diameter in obese patients: pilot comparative study with flaxseed powder and cassava powder. Nutr Hosp. 2011 Jan-Feb;26(1):208-13. 2011.
  • Fofana B, Cloutier S, Kirby CW, et al. A well balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio in developing flax bolls after heating and its implications for use as a fresh vegetable by humans. Food Research International, Volume 44, Issue 8, October 2011, Pages 2459-2464.
  • Fukumitsu S, Aida K, Shimizu H et al. Flaxseed lignan lowers blood cholesterol and decreases liver disease risk factors in moderately hypercholesterolemic men. Nutrition Research, Volume 30, Issue 7, July 2010, Pages 441-446. 2010.
  • Hallund J, Tetens I, Bugel S et al. The effect of a lignan complex isolated from flaxseed on inflammation markers in healthy postmenopausal women. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 18, Issue 7, September 2008, Pages 497-502. 2008.
  • Ibrugger S, Kristensen M, Mikkelsen MS et al. Flaxseed dietary fiber supplements for suppression of appetite and food intake. Appetite, Volume 58, Issue 2, April 2012, Pages 490-495. 2012.
  • Kristensen M, Jensen MG, Aarestrup J et al. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type. Nutrition & Metabolism 9.1 (2012). 2012.
  • Landete JM. Plant and mammalian lignans: A review of source, intake, metabolism, intestinal bacteria and health. Food Research International, Volume 46, Issue 1, April 2012, Pages 410-424. 2012.
  • Leyva DR, Zahradka P, Ramjiawan B et al. The effect of dietary flaxseed on improving symptoms of cardiovascular disease in patients with peripheral artery disease: Rationale and design of the FLAX-PAD randomized controlled trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials, Volume 32, Issue 5, September 2011, Pages 724-730. 2011.
  • Madhusudhan B. Potential Benefits of Flaxseed in Health and Disease - A Perspective. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (ACS) Year: 2009 Vol: 74 Issue: 2 Pages/record No.: 67-72. 2009.
  • Marpalle P, Sonawane SK, LeBlanc JG, et al. Nutritional characterization and oxidative stability of alpha-linolenic acid in bread containing roasted ground flaxseed. LWT - Food Science and Technology, Volume 61, Issue 2, May 2015, Pages 510-515.
  • Morais D de C, Moraes EA, Dantas MI de S et al. Heat Treatment and Thirty-Day Storage Period Do Not Affect the Stability of Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Brown Flaxseed (Linum Usitatissimum) Whole Flour. Food and Nutrition Sciences 2. 4 (Jun 2011): 281-286. 2011.
  • Moriarty S. Omega-3s from Whole-Food Flaxseed. Cereal Foods World 51. 5 (Sep/Oct 2006): 257-259. 2006.
  • Nassu RT, Dugan MER, He ML et al. The effects of feeding flaxseed to beef cows given forage based diets on fatty acids of longissimus thoracis muscle and backfat. Meat Science, Volume 89, Issue 4, December 2011, Pages 469-477. 2011.
  • Oomah BD, Der TJ, and Godfrey DV. Thermal characteristics of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) proteins. Food . Food Chemistry, Volume 98, Issue 4, 2006, Pages 733-741. 2006.
  • Patenaude A, Rodriguez-leyva D, Edel AL et al. Bioavailability of [alpha]-linolenic acid from flaxseed diets as a function of the age of the subject. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition63. 9 (Sep 2009): 1123-9. 2009.
  • Patterson RE. Flaxseed and breast cancer: what should we tell our patients?. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Oct 1;29(28):3723-4. Epub 2011 Sep 6. 2011.
  • Perez-jimenez J, Neveu V, Vos F et al. . Identification of the 100 richest dietary sources of polyphenols: an application of the Phenol-Explorer database. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64. S3 (Nov 2010): S112-20. 2010.
  • Pruthi S, Thompson SL, Novotny PJ et al. Pilot evaluation of flaxseed for the management of hot flashes. J Soc Integr Oncol 2007; 5(3):106-12. 2007.
  • Rodriguez-Leyva D, Bassett CMC, McCullough R et al. The cardiovascular effects of flaxseed and its omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, Volume 26, Issue 9, November 2010, Pages 489-496. 2010.
  • Sainvitu P, Nott K, Richard G et al. Structure, properties and obtention routes of flaxseed lignan secoisolariciresinol: a review. Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Societe et Environnement 2012, 16(1): 115-124. 2012.
  • Simbalista RL, Sauerbronn AV, Aldrighi JM et al. Consumption of a Flaxseed-Rich Food Is Not More Effective Than a Placebo in Alleviating the Climacteric Symptoms of Postmenopausal Women. The Journal of Nutrition140. 2 (Feb 2010): 293-7. 2010.
  • Smith VH and Jimmerson J. Flaxseed. Briefing No. 56. (Nov). Agricultural Marketing Policy Center, Montana State Univesity, Bozeman, MT. 2005. 2005.
  • Sturgeon SR, Volpe SL, Puleo E et al. Dietary intervention of flaxseed: effect on serum levels of IGF-1, IGF-BP3, and C-peptide. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63(3):376-80. 2011.
  • Tarpila S, Aro A, Salminen I et al. The effect of flaxseed supplementation in processed foods on serum fatty acids and enterolactone. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition56. 2 (Feb 2002): 157-65. 2002.
  • Taylor CG, Noto AD, Stringer DM et al. Dietary milled flaxseed and flaxseed oil improve N-3 fatty acid status and do not affect glycemic control in individuals with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Feb;29(1):72-80. 2010.
  • Villeneuve S, Des Marchais LP, Gauvreau V, et al. Effect of flaxseed processing on engineering properties and fatty acids profiles of pasta. Food and Bioproducts Processing, Volume 91, Issue 3, July 2013, Pages 183-191.
  • Wu H, Pan A, Yu Z et al. Lifestyle Counseling and Supplementation with Flaxseed or Walnuts Influence the Management of Metabolic Syndrome. The Journal of Nutrition 140. 11 (Nov 2010): 1937-42. 2010.
  • Young R and Ardith B. Flaxseed supplementation improved insulin resistance in obese glucose intolerant people: a randomized crossover design. Nutrition Journal Year: 2011 Vol: 10 Issue: 1 Pages/record No.: 44. 2011.

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