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References
Each and every month at WHFoods, we rely on hundreds of research studies to keep you up-to-date on scientific information about food, nutrition, and health. (For more information about the role of science in our website content, please see Our Approach to Science Research). Among the featured sections of our website are 100 food profiles and 31 nutrient profiles. In terms of scientific review, we make these profiles one of our website priorities. In each of these profiles, you will find a dedicated References section that contains an alphabetized list of key scientific references involving that particular food or nutrient. In order to make all of these key food and nutrient research references available to you in a single place, we created this WHFoods Reference Library. You can use the radio buttons below to start with either Foods or Nutrients. Then simply choose the specific food or nutrient of interest, and click on it to obtain an alphabetized list of key research references.

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Onions references

  • Akash MSH, Rehman K, and Chen S. Spice plant Allium cepa: Dietary supplement for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrition, Volume 30, Issue 10, October 2014, Pages 1128-1137.
  • Ali M, Thomson M, Afzal M. Garlic and onions: their effect on eicosanoid metabolism and its clinical relevance. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000 Feb;62(2):55-73. Review. 2000.
  • Anderson GH, Soeandy CD, and Smith CE. White vegetables: glycemia and satiety. Adv Nutr. 2013 May 1;4(3):356S-67S. doi: 10.3945/an.112.003509.
  • Azuma K, Minami Y, Ippoushi K et al. Lowering effects of onion intake on oxidative stress biomarkers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2007 Mar;40(2):131-40. 2007.
  • Cong H, Yue J, Meilin L, et al. Influence of wounding intensity and storage temperature on quality and antioxidant activity of fresh-cut Welsh onions. Scientia Horticulturae, Volume 212, 22 November 2016, Pages 203-209.
  • de Alvarenga JFR, Tran C, Hurtado-Barroso S, et al. Home cooking and ingredient synergism improve lycopene isomer production in Sofrito. Food Research International, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 11 January 2017.
  • Devarshi PP, Jones AD, Taylor EM, et al. Quercetin and Quercetin-Rich Red Onion Extract Alter Pgc-1Ã�± Promoter Methylation and Splice Variant Expression. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:3235693. doi: 10.1155/2017/3235693..
  • Dozio E, Barassi A, Ravelli A, et al. The "Breme" red onion: effects of home-storage methods on quercetin and quercetin-glycoside contents. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 2015, 33, 5, pp. 405-409.
  • Eady CC, Kamoi T, Kato M et al. Silencing onion lachrymatory factor synthase causes a significant change in the sulfur secondary metabolite profile. Plant Physiol. 2008 Aug;147(4):2096-106. 2008.
  • El-Aasr M, Fujiwara Y, Takeya M et al. Onionin A from Allium cepa inhibits macrophage activation. J Nat Prod. 2010 Jul 23;73(7):1306-8. 2010.
  • Fukushima S, Takada N, Hori T, Wanibuchi H. Cancer prevention by organosulfur compounds from garlic and onion. J Cell Biochem Suppl 1997;27:100-5. 1997. PMID:13650.
  • Galeone C, Pelucchi C, Levi F, Negri E, Franceschi S, Talamini R, Giacosa A, La Vecchia C. Onion and garlic use and human cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Nov;84(5):1027-32. 2006. PMID:17093154.
  • Galeone C, Pelucchi C, Talamini R et al. Onion and garlic intake and the odds of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology. 2007 Oct;70(4):672-6. 2007.
  • Galeone C, Tavani A, Pelucchi C, et al. Allium vegetable intake and risk of acute myocardial infarction in Italy. Eur J Nutr. 2009 Mar;48(2):120-3. 2009.
  • Gates MA, Tworoger SS, Hecht JL, De Vivo I, Rosner B, Hankinson SE. A prospective study of dietary flavonoid intake and incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer. 2007 Apr 30; [Epub ahead of print]. 2007. PMID:17471564.
  • Gautam S, Platel K and Srinivasan K. Higher bioaccessibility of iron and zinc from food grains in the presence of garlic and onion. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Jul 28;58(14):8426-9. 2010.
  • Gonzalez-Pena D, Checa A, de Ancos B, et al. New insights into the effects of onion consumption on lipid mediators using a diet-induced model of hypercholesterolemia. Redox Biol. 2017 Apr;11:205-212. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2016.12.002.
  • Henagan TM1, Cefalu WT, Ribnicky DM, Noland RC, Dunville K, et al. In vivo effects of dietary quercetin and quercetin-rich red onion extract on skeletal muscle mitochondria, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. Genes Nutr. 2015 Jan;10(1):451. doi: 10.1007/s12263-014-0451-1.
  • Jafarpour-Sadegh F, Montazeri V, Adili A, et al. Consumption of Fresh Yellow Onion Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Insulin Resistance in Breast Cancer Patients During Doxorubicin-Based Chemotherapy: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. Integr Cancer Ther. 2016 Jun 28. pii: 1534735416656915.
  • Khan N, Syed DN, and Ahmad N. Fisetin: a dietary antioxidant for health promotion. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013 Jul 10;19(2):151-62.
  • Kim JH. Anti-bacterial action of onion (Allium cepa L.) extracts against oral pathogenic bacteria. J Nihon Univ Sch Dent. 1997 Sep;39(3):136-41. 1997.
  • Kook S, Kim GH and Choi K. The antidiabetic effect of onion and garlic in experimental diabetic rats: meta-analysis. J Med Food. 2009 Jun;12(3):552-60. 2009.
  • Lieberman VM, Zhao IY, Schaffner DW, et al. Survival or growth of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on yellow onions (Allium cepa) under conditions simulating food service and consumer handling and storage. Journal of Food Protection, 2015, 78, 1, pp. 42-50.
  • Matheson EM, Mainous AG 3rd and Carnemolla MA. The association between onion consumption and bone density in perimenopausal and postmenopausal non-Hispanic white women 50 years and older. Menopause. 2009 Jul-Aug;16(4):756-9. 2009.
  • Melino S, Sabelli R and Paci M. Allyl sulfur compounds and cellular detoxification system: effects and perspectives in cancer therapy. Amino Acids. 2010 Mar 6. [Epub ahead of print]. 2010.
  • Moon JH, Nakata R, Oshima S, et al. Accumulation of quercetin conjugates in blood plasma after the short-term ingestion of onion by women. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000 Aug;279(2):R461-7. 2000.
  • Nemeth K and Piskula MK. Food content, processing, absorption and metabolism of onion flavonoids. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2007;47(4):397-409. 2007.
  • Nicastro HL, Ross SA, and Milner JA. Garlic and onions: their cancer prevention properties. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015 Mar;8(3):181-9.
  • Pal HC, Pearlman RL, and Afaq F. Fisetin and Its Role in Chronic Diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;928:213-244.
  • Ramos FA, Takaishi Y, Shirotori M et al. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of quercetin oxidation products from yellow onion (Allium cepa) skin. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 May 17;54(10):3551-7. . 2006.
  • Slimestad R, Fossen T and VÃ�Â¥gen IM. Onions: a source of unique dietary flavonoids. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Dec 12;55(25):10067-80. 2007.
  • Somerset SM and Johannot L. Dietary flavonoid sources in Australian adults. Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(4):442-9. 2008.
  • Turati F, Pelucchi C, Guercio V, et al. Allium vegetable intake and gastric cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 Jan;59(1):171-9. doi: 0.1002/mnfr.201400496. Epub 2014 Oct 8.
  • Wang L, Lee IM, Zhang SM, et al. Dietary intake of selected flavonols, flavones, and flavonoid-rich foods and risk of cancer in middle-aged and older women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Mar;89(3):905-12. 2009.
  • Weaver C and Marr ET. White vegetables: a forgotten source of nutrients: Purdue roundtable executive summary. Adv Nutr. 2013 May 1;4(3):318S-26S.
  • Wilson EA and Demmig-Adams B. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties of garlic and onions. Nutrition & Food Science 2007, Vol. 37 Iss: 3, pp.178 ' 183. 2007.

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