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References
Each and every month at WHFoods, we rely on hundreds of research studies to keep you up-to-date on scientific information about food, nutrition, and health. (For more information about the role of science in our website content, please see Our Approach to Science Research). Among the featured sections of our website are 100 food profiles and 31 nutrient profiles. In terms of scientific review, we make these profiles one of our website priorities. In each of these profiles, you will find a dedicated References section that contains an alphabetized list of key scientific references involving that particular food or nutrient. In order to make all of these key food and nutrient research references available to you in a single place, we created this WHFoods Reference Library. You can use the radio buttons below to start with either Foods or Nutrients. Then simply choose the specific food or nutrient of interest, and click on it to obtain an alphabetized list of key research references.

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Salmon references

  • Arita M, Bianchini F, Aliberti J, Sher A, Chiang N, Hong S, Yang R, Petasis NA, Serhan CN. Stereochemical assignment, antiinflammatory properties, and receptor for the omega-3 lipid mediator resolvin E1. J Exp Med. 2005 Mar 7;201(5):713-22. 2005. PMID:15753205.
  • Beydoun MA, Kaufman JS, Satia JA, Rosamond W, Folsom AR. Plasma n-3 fatty acids and the risk of cognitive decline in older adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1103-11. 2007. PMID:17413112.
  • Chrysohoou C, Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Skoumas J, Krinos X, Chloptsios Y, Nikolaou V, Stefanadis C. Long-term fish consumption is associated with protection against arrhythmia in healthy persons in a Mediterranean region--the ATTICA study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 May;85(5):1385-91. 2007. PMID:17490977.
  • Chua B, Flood V, Rochtchina E, Wang JJ, Smith W, Mitchell P. Dietary fatty acids and the 5-year incidence of age-related maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Jul;124(7):981-6. 2006. PMID:16832023.
  • Connor W. Will the dietary intake of fish prevent atherosclerosis in diabetic women. <. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;80(3):626-32. 2004. PMID:15321789.
  • Connor WE, Connor SL. The importance of fish and docosahexaenoic acid in Alzheimer disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):929-30. 2007. PMID:17413088.
  • Cullon DL, Yunkerr MB, Alleyne C et al. Persistent organic pollutants in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): implications for resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Oxford: Jan 2009. Vol. 28, Iss. 1; p. 148-161. 2009.
  • Elvevoll EO, Barstad H, Breimo ES, Brox J, Eilertsen KE, Lund T, Olsen JO, Osterud B. Enhanced incorporation of n-3 fatty acids from fish compared with fish oils. Lipids. 2006 Dec;41(12):1109-14. 2006. PMID:17269556.
  • Erkkila A, Lichtenstein A, Mozaffarian D, Herrington D. Fish intake is associated with a reduced progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr , Sept. 2004; (80(3):626-32. 2004. PMID:15321802.
  • Foran JA, Carpenter DO, Hamilton MC et al. Risk-based consumption advice for farmed Atlantic and wild Pacific salmon contaminated with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Environ Health Perspect 2005, 113(5):552—556. 2005.
  • Fritschi L, Ambrosini GL, Kliewer EV, Johnson KC; Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiologic Research Group. Dietary fish intake and risk of leukaemia, multiple myeloma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Apr;13(4):532-7. 2004. PMID:15066916.
  • Ginsberg GL and Toal BF. Quantitative approach for incorporating methylmercury risks and omega-3 fatty acid benefits in developing species-specific fish consumption advice. Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Feb;117(2):267-75. Epub 2008 Sep 3. 2009.
  • Green KN, Martinez-Coria H, Khashwji H, Hall EB, Yurko-Mauro KA, Ellis L, Laferla FM. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid and Docosapentaenoic Acid Ameliorate Amyloid-{beta} and Tau Pathology via a Mechanism Involving Presenilin 1 Levels. J Neurosci. 2007 Apr 18;27(16):4385-95. 2007. PMID:17442823.
  • Grimstad T, Berge RK, Bohov P et al. Salmon diet in patients with active ulcerative colitis reduced the simple clinical colitis activity index and increased the anti-inflammatory fatty acid index--a pilot study. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2011 Feb;71(1):68-73. Epub 2010 Dec 8. 2011.
  • Halpern T, Paulson N, Hatch J. Chinook Salmon. http://www.gen.umn.edu/research/fish/. 0.
  • Hamilton MC, Hites RA, Schwager SJ et al. . Lipid composition and contaminants in farmed and wild salmon. Environ Sci Technol. 2005, Nov 15; 39(22):8622-9. 2005.
  • Harris WS, Pottala JV, Sands SA, et al. Comparison of the effects of fish and fish-oil capsules on the n 3 fatty acid content of blood cells and plasma phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1621-5. 2007. PMID:18065578.
  • He K, Song Y, Daviglus ML, Liu K, Van Horn L, Dyer AR, Goldbourt U, Greenland P. Fish consumption and incidence of stroke: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Stroke. 2004 Jul;35(7):1538-42. 2004. PMID:15155968.
  • Hedelin M, Chang ET, Wiklund F, Bellocco R, Klint A, Adolfsson J, Shahedi K, Xu J, Adami HO, Gronberg H, Balter KA. Association of frequent consumption of fatty fish with prostate cancer risk is modified by COX-2 polymorphism. Int J Cancer. 2006 Oct 25; [Epub ahead of print] . 2006. PMID:17066444.
  • Holguin F, Tellez-Rojo MM, Lazo M, Mannino D, Schwartz J, Hernandez M, Romieu I. Cardiac autonomic changes associated with fish oil vs soy oil supplementation in the elderly. Chest. 2005 Apr;127(4):1102-7. 2005. PMID:15821181.
  • Iribarren C, Markovitz JH, Jacobs DR, Schreiner PJ, Daviglus M, Hibbeln JR. Dietary intake of n-3, n-6 fatty acids and fish: Relationship with hostility in young adults-the CARDIA study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jan;58(1):24-31. 2004.
  • Johnson LL, Ylitalo GM, Arkoosh MR et al. Contaminant exposure in outmigrant juvenile salmon from Pacific Northwest estuaries of the United States. Environ Monit Assess. 2007 Jan;124(1-3):167-94. Epub 2006 Sep 7. 2007.
  • Kalmijn S, van Boxtel MP, Ocke M, Verschuren WM, Kromhout D, Launer LJ. Dietary intake of fatty aids and fish in relation to cognitive performance at middle age. Neurology. 2004 Jan 27;62(2):275-80. 2004. PMID:14745067.
  • Karsdal MA, Byrjalsen I, Bay-Jensen AC et al. Biochemical markers identify influences on bone and cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis - the effect of sex, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score, Body Mass Index (BMI), oral salmon calcitonin (sCT) treat. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders Year: 2010 Vol: 11 Issue: 1 Pages/record No.: 125. 2010.
  • Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Belury MA, Porter K, Beversdorf DQ, Lemeshow S, Glaser R. Depressive Symptoms, omega-6:omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Inflammation in Older Adults. Psychosom Med. 2007 Mar 30; [Epub ahead of print]. 2007. PMID:17401057.
  • Knapp G, Roheim C and Anderson J. The Great Salmon Run. Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) at the University of Alaska. Anchorage, AK. 2007. 2007.
  • Kratz M, Swarbrick MM, Callahan HS et al. Effect of dietary n—3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin concentrations in overweight to moderately obese men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 February; 87(2): 347-353. 2008.
  • Mahaffey KR, Clickner RP and Jeffries RA. Methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids: co-occurrence of dietary sources with emphasis on fish and shellfish. Environ Res. 2008 May;107(1):20-9. Epub 2007 Nov 8. 2008.
  • Mazza M, Pomponi M, Janiri L, Bria P, Mazza S. Omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants in neurological and psychiatric diseases: an overview. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Jan 30;31(1):12-26. Epub 2006 Aug 28. 2007. PMID:16938373.
  • McLennan PL, Owen AJ, Slee EL et al. Myocardial function, ischaemia and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: a membrane basis. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2007 Sep;8 Suppl 1:S15-8. 2007.
  • Middaugh JP, Arnold SM and Verbrugge LA. Risk-Based Consumption of Dioxin-Contaminated Farmed Salmon. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 October; 113(10): A655-A656. 2005.
  • Miljanovic B, Trivedi KA, Dana MR, Gilbard JP, Buring JE, Schaumberg DA. Relation between dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and clinically diagnosed dry eye syndrome in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Oct;82(4):887-93. 2005. PMID:16210721.
  • Mitsui T, Sashinami H, Sato F et al. Salmon cartilage proteoglycan suppresses mouse experimental colitis through induction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Nov 12;402(2):209-15. Epub 2010 Oct 20. 2010.
  • Moore CS, Bryant SP, Mishra GD, Krebs JD, Browning LM, Miller GJ, Jebb SA. Oily fish reduces plasma triacylglycerols: a primary prevention study in overweight men and women. Nutrition. 2006 Oct;22(10):1012-24. 2006. PMID:17027436.
  • Mozaffarian D, Gottdiener JS, Siscovick DS. Intake of tuna or other broiled or baked fish versus fried fish and cardiac structure, function, and hemodynamics. Am J Cardiol. 2006 Jan 15;97(2):216-22. 2006. PMID:16442366.
  • Mozaffarian D, Prineas RJ, Stein PK, Siscovick DS. Dietary fish and n-3 fatty acid intake and cardiac electrocardiographic parameters in humans. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Aug 1;48(3):478-84. 2006. PMID:16875972.
  • Mozaffarian D, Psaty BM, Rimm EB, Lemaitre RN, Burke GL, Lyles MF, Lefkowitz D, Siscovick DS. Fish intake and risk of incident atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2004 Jul 27;110(4):368-73. 2004. PMID:15262826.
  • Nurk E, Drevon CA, Refsum H, et al. Cognitive performance among the elderly and dietary fish intake: the Hordaland Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1470-8. 2007. PMID:17991661.
  • Parra D, Bandarra NM, Kiely M et al. Impact of fish intake on oxidative stress when included into a moderate energy-restricted program to treat obesity. Eur J Nutr. 2007 Dec;46(8):460-7. Epub 2007 Nov 17. 2007.
  • Paulo MC, Andrade AM, Andrade ML et al. Influence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on soluble cellular adhesion molecules as biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in young healthy subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008 Dec;18(10):664-70. Epub 2008 Apr 16. 2008.
  • Pilon G, Ruzzin J, Rioux LE et al. Differential effects of various fish proteins in altering body weight, adiposity, inflammatory status, and insulin sensitivity in high-fat-fed rats. Metabolism. 2011 Feb 7. [Epub ahead of print]. 2011.
  • Ruzzin J, Pepersen R, Meugnier E et al. Persistent Organic Pollutant Exposure Leads to Insulin Resistance Syndrome. Environmental Health Perspectives. Research Triangle Park: Apr 2010. Vol. 118, Iss. 4; p. 465-471. 2010.
  • Schaefer EJ, Bongard V, Beiser AS, Lamon-Fava S, Robins SJ, Au R, Tucker KL, Kyle DJ, Wilson PW, Wolf PA. Plasma phosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid content and risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease: the Framingham Heart Study. Arch Neurol. 2006 Nov;63(11):1545-50. 2006. PMID:17101822.
  • Seddon JM, George S, Rosner B. Cigarette smoking, fish consumption, omega-3 fatty acid intake, and associations with age-related macular degeneration: the US Twin Study of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Jul;124(7):995-1001. 2006. PMID:16832023.
  • Smith KL and Guentzel JL. Mercury concentrations and omega-3 fatty acids in fish and shrimp: Preferential consumption for maximum health benefits. Mar Pollut Bull. 2010 Sep;60(9):1615-8. Epub 2010 Jul 14. 2010.
  • Sondergaard BC, Madsen SH, Segovia-Silvestre T et al. Investigation of the direct effects of salmon calcitonin on human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2010, 11:62 (5 April 2010). 2010.
  • Steffen LM, Folsom AR, Cushman M, Jacobs DR Jr, Rosamond WD. Greater Fish, Fruit, and Vegetable Intakes Are Related to Lower Incidence of Venous Thromboembolism. The Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology. Circulation. 2006 Dec 18; [Epub ahead of print] . 2006. PMID:17179018.
  • Storey A, McArdle F, Friedmann PS, Jackson MJ, Rhodes LE. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid reduce UVB- and TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 secretion in keratinocytes and UVB-induced IL-8 in fibroblasts. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Jan;124(1):248-55. 2005. PMID:15654981.
  • Strange CJ. Troubling Waters. Bioscience. Washington: Dec 2008. Vol. 58, Iss. 11; p. 1008-1013. 2008.
  • Tabak C, Wijga AH, de Meer G, Janssen NA, Brunekreef B, Smit HA. Diet and asthma in Dutch school children (ISAAC-2). Thorax. 2006 Dec;61(12):1048-53. Epub 2005 Oct 21. 2006. PMID:16244092.
  • Theodoratou E, McNeill G, Cetnarskyj R, Farrington SM, Tenesa A, Barnetson R, Porteous M, Dunlop M, Campbell H. Dietary Fatty acids and colorectal cancer: a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Jul 15;166(2):181-95. Epub 2007 May 9. 2007. PMID:17493949.
  • Ueshima H, Stamler J, Elliott P, Chan Q, Brown IJ, Carnethon MR, Daviglus ML, He K, Moag-Stahlberg A, Rodriguez BL, Steffen LM, Van Horn L, Yarnell J, Zhou B. Food Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake of Individuals (Total, Linolenic Acid, Long-Chain) and Their Blood Pressure. INTERMAP Study. Hypertension. 2007 Jun 4; [Epub ahead of print] . 2007. PMID:17548718.
  • van Gelder BM, Tijhuis M, Kalmijn S, Kromhout D. Fish consumption, n-3 fatty acids, and subsequent 5-y cognitive decline in elderly men: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1142-7. 2007. PMID:17413117.
  • Wolk A, Larsson SC, Johansson JE, Ekman P. Long-term fatty fish consumption and renal cell carcinoma incidence in women. JAMA. 2006 Sep 20;296(11):1371-6. 2006. PMID:16985229.
  • Wu M, Harvey KA, Ruzmetov N, Welch ZR, Sech L, Jackson K, Stillwell W, Zaloga GP, Siddiqui RA. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuate breast cancer growth through activation of a neutral sphingomyelinase-mediated pathway. Int J Cancer. 2005 Nov 10;117(3):340-8. 2005. PMID:15900589.
  • Zhang J, Wang C, Li L et al. Inclusion of Atlantic salmon in the Chinese diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk markers in dyslipidemic adult men. Nutr Res. 2010 Jul;30(7):447-54. 2010.
  • Zhu CF, Peng HB, Liu GQ et al. Beneficial effects of oligopeptides from marine salmon skin in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Nutrition. 2010 Oct;26(10):1014-20. Epub 2010 Jun 11. 2010.

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